adb.exe: failed to check server version: protocol fault (couldn't read status): connection reset

Well, after much searching, the problem is as follows:

Windows port 5037 is occupied, and you need special permissions. Therefore, it's impossible to launch it if you encounter this error, unless it works after a system restart.

To check this, I had to do the following:

adb nodaemon server

With this, I saw that the port was in use.

The solution would be as follows:

Alright, the problem is related to the port. Port 5037 is blocked. In my case, I use Visual Studio and Android Studio, and ADB runs when emulating devices but not when I need to use it from the terminal.

You only need to use:

adb -P 5000 start-server
adb -P 5000 devices

Now, you can see the devices.

It's possible that you need to open ADB from your ADB path, but the process is the same.